Hand hygiene: Back to the basics of infection control

Hand hygiene: Back to the basics of infection control

Types of hand hygiene Hand Rub Alcohol based (70–80% ethyl alcohol) and chlorhexidine (0.5–4%) based hand rubs are available. The duration of contact has to be at least for 20–30 seconds. Advantage: After a period of contact, it gets evaporated of its own, hence drying of hands is not required separately. Indications: Hand rub is […]

Prevention of Needle Stick Injury

Prevention of Needle Stick Injury

Prevention of Needle Stick Injuryhttps://sciencegajab.com/ Precautions During Handling Needles



Scabies Scabies (Itch mite or Sarcoptes scabiei)Scabies is caused by itch mite or Sarcoptes scabiei.Transmission to man is through transfer of impregnatedfemale mites through— (1) skin-to-skin contact with an infested person, or (2) rarely spread indirectly by sharing their items such as clothing, towels, or bedding. Scabies can spread easily under crowded conditions where close […]

Human bites

A Human Bite

Human Bites Human bites may take place during fights, domestic abuse,sexual activity or healthcare workers caring for patients.Human-bite wounds become infected less frequently(10–15% of the time) than the bites inflicted by animals Types of human bites: Human bites are categorized intotwo types ●Occlusional injuries, which are inflicted by actual biting ● Clenched-fist injuries: Occurs during […]



MUMPS Mumps virus is the most common cause of parotid glandenlargement in children. In severe cases, it can also causeorchitis and aseptic meningitis. Pathogenesis Transmission is through the respiratory route viadroplets, saliva, and fomites Primary replication occurs in the nasal mucosa orupper respiratory mucosa → infects mononuclear cellsand regional lymph nodes → spills over to […]


Corneal Ulcer ( Keratitis)

Corneal Ulcer (Bacterial Keratitis) Bacterial keratitis is the most common form keratitis(corneal ulcer), although it may also be caused by viruses,parasites and fungi. Etiology: Common bacteria associated with cornealulceration include S. aureus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcuspneumoniae, Enterobacteriaceae and NeisseriaTransmission: Infection spreads to cornea either —(1)endogenously from underlying infection of adjacentstructures—conjunctiva, eyelid or lacrimal gland; or (2)exogenously from […]


Hordeolum Hordeolum is an acute focal infection of eyelid (lash follicles), usuallycaused by Staphylococcus aureus. Risk factor: It usually occurs among children and youngadults with habitual rubbing of the eyes Two types: It is an acute suppurative inflammation oflash follicles and its associated glands sciencegajab.com

Decubitus Ulcer

Decubitus Ulcer

Decubitus Ulcer Elderly or chronically ill, bedridden patients are prone todevelop decubitus ulcer (also called as bed sore or pressuresore); the most common site being near the anus or onthe lower extremities. Most frequent organisms infect thedecubitus ulcer are gastrointestinal flora (e.g. Bacteroides fragilis, or nosocomial pathogens (e.g. S. aureus and P.aeruginosa).

Malaria life cycle


Malaria Malaria is the most lethal parasitic diseaseof humans, transmitted in 108 countriescontaining 3 billion people.Worldwide, the incidence of malaria isestimated to be 300–500 million clinicalcases with nearly 1 million deaths everyyearThe tropical zone is affected the most. Themost common malaria affected regions areSub-Saharan Africa (accounts for 85% oftotal infection) followed by South East AsiaRegion […]

Pulmonary embolism


EMBOLISM Definition and TypesEmbolism is the process of partial or complete obstruction ofsome part of the cardiovascular system by any mass carriedin the circulation; the transported intravascular massdetached from its site of origin is called an embolus. Mostusual forms of emboli (90%) are thromboemboli i.e.originating from thrombi or their parts detached from thevessel wall.Emboli may […]