Malaria life cycle



Malaria is the most lethal parasitic disease
of humans, transmitted in 108 countries
containing 3 billion people.
Worldwide, the incidence of malaria is
estimated to be 300–500 million clinical
cases with nearly 1 million deaths every
The tropical zone is affected the most. The
most common malaria affected regions are
Sub-Saharan Africa (accounts for 85% of
total infection) followed by South East Asia
Region (SEAR) (10%) and Mediterranean
P. vivax is the predominant species and
has the widest geographical distribution
throughout the world
Age: Children are more prone to infection
and complications. However, newborn are
protected from falciparum malaria because
of high concentration of fetal hemoglobin in
first few months of life
Predisposing factors: The transmission of
malaria is directly proportional to:
● Density of the vector
●Number of human bites per day per
●Time of mosquito bite (more after the
●Mosquito longevity (as sporogony lasts
for 7–30 days, thus, to transmit malaria,
the mosquito must survive for >
7 days)
●Optimum temperature (20–30°C)
●Optimum humidity (60%)
● Rainfall (July to November)
●Altitude below 2,000 meters.

Life cycle of malaria


Pain areas: in the abdomen or muscles

Whole body: chills, fatigue, fever, night sweats, shivering, or sweating

Gastrointestinal: diarrhoea, nausea, or vomiting

Also common: fast heart rate, headache, mental confusion, or pallor